Terluin B. De Vierdimensionale Klachtenlijst (4DKL). Een vragenlijst voor het meten van distress, depressie, angst en somatisatie [The Four-Dimensional. In non-clinical (working) populations it is important to differentiate between general distress, on the one hand, and psychiatric. Een vragenlijst voor het meten van distress, depressie, angst en somatisatie. Wat meet de Vierdimensionale Klachtenlijst (4DKL) in vergelijking met enkele.

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Distress is the most basic, most general, most “normal” expression of psychological problems. To provide more detailed information about the samples, we have calculated mean scores and standard deviations of the 4DSQ scales in the various study samples.

Abstract Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire 4DSQ is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. Qual Life Res ; online first. Experiencing one or just a few medically unexplained symptoms e. We conceptualize distress as the direct manifestation of the effort people must exert to maintain their psychosocial homeostasis and social functioning when confronted with taxing life stress [ 7 ].

4DKL Vragenlijst by Fred Peelen on Prezi

Table 15 Correlations between the 4DSQ scales and other symptom questionnaires measuring distress, depression, anxiety and somatization; Pearson correlation coefficients r. The Somatization scale measures a range of common physical symptoms, known to be related to distress or psychopathology. In our four-dimensional model of psychological symptoms, distress is not merely a common part of anxiety and depression but, instead, we see distress as a fourth dimension of psychopathology besides depression, anxiety and somatization.


J Health Soc Behav. Furthermore, the Distress score was found to be associated with psychosocial stressors, and especially with psychosocial problems such as marital and financial problems and excessive occupational demands. Logistic regression analysis with any anxiety disorder diagnosis as dependent variable and the 4DSQ scores as independent variables; study E.

J Nerv Ment Dis. This indicated that some depression and anxiety inventories measured a lot of distress in 4DSQ terms. With respect to the preparation of the present paper the authors were funded by their respective organisations.

It is clearly recognized that our role is to provide an environment that encourages good conduct in research and discourages misconduct, and to provide tools that maximize high quality research. Vrxgenlijst patterns in the distribution of psychiatric symptoms. Conceptual background The 4DSQ is grounded in our study of the clinical characteristics of patients with a “nervous breakdown” presenting in general practice [ 4 ]. The aim of this paper is to investigate the 4DSQ’s validity.

The funding bodies did not have any influence on the study designs, the collection, analyses and interpretation of the data, the writing of the manuscript, or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. A cutoff point for distress in a working population.

Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ)

Reliability, precision and smallest detectable change. J Occup Med Toxicol ; 3: An important limitation of this study has to do with the fact that some of the data we used were primarily collected for other purposes. Distress Characteristic distress symptoms are worry, irritability, tension, listlessness, poor concentration, sleeping problems and demoralisation.

Assessing the equivalence of Web-based and paper-and-pencil questionnaires using differential item and test functioning DIF and DTF analysis: Comparing the mean scores across samples provided already an aspect of construct validity.


Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. One dot represents one or more observations subjects. In study B work stress was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire JCQ scales Psychological job demands, Decision latitude, and Social support from co-workers and supervisors [ 43 ]. Detecting anxiety and depression in general medical settings.

Four Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) – EMGO

Yet, we failed to demonstrate unequivocal criterion validity of the Anxiety scale with respect to standardised DSM-IV anxiety disorder diagnoses. The correlations between the 4DSQ-scales range from 0.

ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. The 4DSQ seems to be a valid self-report questionnaire to measure distress, depression, anxiety and somatization in primary care patients. These symptoms are considered vragelijst represent the 4rkl symptomatology of major depression [ 89 ]. Because some of the variables showed considerable kurtosis, we used elliptical reweighted least squares ERLS estimation.

In order to increase the power of the analysis, the measurements of both times were combined as if the retests were independent observations. Conclusion The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire 4DSQ appears to be a valid self-report questionnaire to measure distress, depression, anxiety and somatization in primary care. In retrospect, we suspect that study Vragenljjst was not ideal for investigating the criterion validity of the Anxiety scale because the patients were vragenlujst selected for anxietyleaving little contrast between patients with and without an anxiety disorder.